#Free Epub Á The Tide at Sunrise: A History of the Russo-Japanese War, 1904-05 Þ eBook or E-pub free

Seeing the silent classic Battleship Potemkin as a youngster, I recently decided to do a little research on the Russo Japanese War of 1904 to 1905 Denis Warner, considered an authority on Asian affairs of the twentieth century, with his wife, Peggy, also a journalist, co authored the book.Thirty seven years before Pearl Harbor, the Japanese executed a sneak attack on the Russian Navy, while it was anchored in Port Arthur at the southern tip of China s Liaodong Peninsula, without warning or a Seeing the silent classic Battleship Potemkin as a youngster, I recently decided to do a little research on the Russo Japanese War of 1904 to 1905 Denis Warner, considered an authority on Asian affairs of the twentieth century, with his wife, Peggy, also a journalist, co authored the book.Thirty seven years before Pearl Harbor, the Japanese executed a sneak attack on the Russian Navy, while it was anchored in Port Arthur at the southern tip of China s Liaodong Peninsula, without warning or a declaration of war The two events are eerily similar in many ways, even the flagship of the attacking Japanese naval forces at both Port Arthur and Pearl Harbor, flew the very same battle flag.It seems that the causes of this war, one of the first true modern wars, were the root causes for the later World Wars, Korean War and Viet Nam War.It is amazing to me, that the US could be caught completely unaware at Pearl Harbor, when the sneak attack on Port Arthur was relatively recent in the timeline of world events, especially regarding Imperial Japan in Eastern Asia and the Pacific within the first half of the twentieth century.Also amazing, is the fact that the land battle at Mukden, Manchuria, consisted of the largest array of opposing armies ever put together, second only to the battle of Sedan during the Franco Prussian War, three decades earlier.A great deal of research was obviously put into the production of this interesting and informative history I couldn t put it down until the very end I would think this is the definitive account of the conflict between Russia and Japan, fought over Korea and northern China from 1904 to 1905.It is certainly well written and well researched It s a story of clashing imperialisms at a time when empires were being built around the world, with the British Empire the biggest of them all and the United States having gained Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines, to become one of the newer members of the club The authors show the devel I would think this is the definitive account of the conflict between Russia and Japan, fought over Korea and northern China from 1904 to 1905.It is certainly well written and well researched It s a story of clashing imperialisms at a time when empires were being built around the world, with the British Empire the biggest of them all and the United States having gained Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines, to become one of the newer members of the club The authors show the development of the Russian Empire toward the East putting them on a collision course with an expanding Japanese Empire The authors show how Japan emerged from feudalism to rapidly industrialize in a fifty year period Japan wanted to dominate the Korean Peninsula and gain greater influence in China and they saw Russia as a growing threat to their ambitions On the other hand, Russia did not see Japan as any kind of threat and felt they could be easily pushed aside, their first major mistake In the war that followed, the Japanese proved to be better organized, supplied, and, generally, better led, and very importantly, the Japanese soldiers were much better motivated Japan amazed the world with a series of victories over their bigger andpowerful enemy Japan capped its victories with a stunning victory at sea with the Japanese fleet under Togo crushing the Russian Baltic Fleet in the Battle of Tsushima, perhaps the most complete major naval victory in history However, Japan had stretched itself to the limit of their resources to achieve their victories, while Russia was still mobilizing its vast manpower reserves and sending reinforcements via the Trans Siberian Railway to the front in northern China Manchuria But the Tsar had troubles, too, as revolution was brewing at home, with outright rebellion in occupied Poland It was in the interests of both empires to negotiate a peace, and I thought this was the most interesting part of the book, as President Theodore Roosevelt mediated between Japan and Russia, in Portsmouth, New Hampshire An amazing period of history which only pointed the way to even greater conflicts Japan becoming set on a course of imperialism which would finally lead to war with the United States and Russia all too soon to go to war in Europe and undergo revolution, civil war, and the rise of Communism #Free Epub ì The Tide at Sunrise: A History of the Russo-Japanese War, 1904-05 ⚝ The Russo Japanese War was fought in the waters of the Yellow Sea and the Straits of Tsushima that divide Japan from Korea, and in the mountains of Manchuria, borrowed without permission from China It was the first war to be fought with modern weaponsThe Japanese had fought the Chinese at sea inand had gained a foothold in Manchuria by taking control of Port Authur In , however, Japan was forced to abandon its claims by the Russian fleet s presence in the Straits of Tsushima Tsar Nicholas had obtained a window to the East for his empire and Japan had been humiliated Tensions between the two countries would rise inexorably over the next decadeAround the world, no one doubted that little Japan would be no match for the mighty armies of Tsar Nicholas II Yet Russia was in an advanced state of decay, the government corrupt and its troops inept and demoralized Japan, meanwhile, was emerging from centuries of feudal isolation and becoming an industrial power, led by zealous nationalist warlords keen to lead the Orient to victory over the oppressive West From the opening surprise attack on the Russian fleet at Port Authur in , the Japanese out fought and out thought the RussiansThis is a definitive account of one of the pivotal conflicts of the twentieth century whose impact was felt around the world I knew very little about this war before I read this book. Well written account of the Russo Japanese War Lot of background leading up to the war Fairly detailed descriptions of each battle and tactics used While good discussion of the political Homefront in Russia, surprisingly very little of the same in Japan. This was an extremely well written and fascinating look at the Russo Japanese War The writing style flows very well and it reads almost as if it were a novel The authors did a good job in fleshing out the main historical figures, such as Togo and Kuropatkin, and this worked well in keeping my interest beyond the fact that this was a required book Most importantly, the authors effectively examine all three levels of war tactical, operational, strategic and provide linkages at all stages of This was an extremely well written and fascinating look at the Russo Japanese War The writing style flows very well and it reads almost as if it were a novel The authors did a good job in fleshing out the main historical figures, such as Togo and Kuropatkin, and this worked well in keeping my interest beyond the fact that this was a required book Most importantly, the authors effectively examine all three levels of war tactical, operational, strategic and provide linkages at all stages of their analysis this is important in order to understand the effects of this limited war in the larger geostrategic arena The narrative clearly described the contrasting methods of the employment of the instruments of national power, and when you look for it, chapters 1 2 of Clausewitz jump out while reading My only quibble is that this is clearly a post mortem of the war Two good companions to this work would be Fuller s Strategy and Power in Russia and Evans and Peattie s Kaigun on the strategy of the Japanese imperial navy Excellent history. The Tide at Sunrise is an excellent single volume survey of the Russo Japanese War. This book encompassesthan its title suggests In fact, the first hundred to two hundred pages are spent establishing the history that brought the war about, and the last chapter is spent speculating on the decades thereafter So, what actually is the book, then I would call it something of a prelude to World War One, something of a commentary on borderline theocratic nationalism, and a study on what happens when two nations with very similar military doctrine go to war There are very fe This book encompassesthan its title suggests In fact, the first hundred to two hundred pages are spent establishing the history that brought the war about, and the last chapter is spent speculating on the decades thereafter So, what actually is the book, then I would call it something of a prelude to World War One, something of a commentary on borderline theocratic nationalism, and a study on what happens when two nations with very similar military doctrine go to war There are very few examples of cunning or tactical genius to be seen in the Russo Japanese War Russia s command structure was incompetent and timid while simultaneously overemphasizing courage and heroics, and the only officers with any sense were called cowards for their lack of reliance on miraculous heroics Port Arthur itself, the centerpiece around which the war was fought was a veritable fortress that could have been held indefinitely by anyone who took advantage of the natural and man made defenses that surrounded it However, instead of spending the war s preceding years building Port Arthur into the stronghold it could have been, Russia spent its time shipping alcohol across the trans siberian railway and stationing there what were basically conscripts while Japan was engaging in gunboat diplomacy with Korea, intending to use Inchon as a staging ground for their troop landings That isn t to say the Japanese were much better The suicidal Nogi, general of the Japanese Third Army used brute force, or human bullets as they called it, as his go to strategy He was known even in Japan as an ineffective officer, as displayed by his previous exploits in the Sino Japanese war He himself did not want to take command of the Third Army, and after the war he killed himself out of shame However, if there was a strategically minded individual among the Japanese command, it was Admiral Togo, who distinguished himself by launching the first Pearl Harbor, in which Japanese torpedo boats and destroyers attacked the moored Russian fleet at Port Arthur Partially by his command and partially by the Russians badly trained, badly led Navy, the Japanese fleet dominated the seas and crippled Russia s fleets All this to say, this book was well researched, gripping to read, and it shined a whole lot of light on a lesser talked about part of World War One s conception The war was brief, but it was, in its day the largest armed conflict ever fought by mankind It was all fought around one tiny port on the southern shores of Manchuria, west of Korea, by men who didn t understand their enemy or themselves The Tide at Sunrise could quite possibly be the definitive account of the Russo Japanese War written in the English language The book was meticulously researched and very well written It is also extremely thorough In addition to detailed accounts of the various battles, the book includes insightful portraits of the various generals and other key players as well as excellent commentary on the political and cultural context of the war While the book does include a handful of maps, they are few The Tide at Sunrise could quite possibly be the definitive account of the Russo Japanese War written in the English language The book was meticulously researched and very well written It is also extremely thorough In addition to detailed accounts of the various battles, the book includes insightful portraits of the various generals and other key players as well as excellent commentary on the political and cultural context of the war While the book does include a handful of maps, they are few and far between and often lack the desired level of detail With battles taking place in unfamiliar locations with difficult to pronounce names, better maps would have significantly enhanced my ability to follow and visualize the actions of the opposing armies and navies First published in 1974 shortly after Nixon s visit to China , the concluding chapter includes some dated Cold War era commentary and speculation on the future of the region that hasn t aged well Those minor faults aside, this was a great account of a war that deservesattention than it currently receives in Western professional military education circles While a relatively short war, it had global ramifications that I failed to truly appreciate until reading this book details below in my summary Book Summary The Russo Japanese War was the first war that saw coal powered, ard battleships with 12 guns meet in equal combat Japan used them in the Sino Japanese War in 1894 Modern mines and torpedoes played a significant role in the naval battles The land actions involved unprecedented numbers of soldiers the Battle of Liaoyang was second only to the Battle of Sedan in the Franco Prussian War in terms of the numbers of men up to that point x Background and ContextFollowing the opening up of Japan in 1854 from its feudal isolation, the country made enormous industrial leaps forward 23 In 1894, Japan plunged into war with China over Korea in a full fledged dress rehearsal for the Russo Japanese War 50 The victorious Japanese gained control of Korea, Formosa, and the Liaotung Peninsula Under pressure and threats from Russia, France, and Germany, Japan abandoned its claim to the Liaotung peninsula 54 55 Instead of using the indemnity paid by China to build railroads in Korea and Manchuria as planned, they built battleships 55 Tsar Nicholas II faced his first international crisis over Japan s intention to seize the Liaotung Peninsula Russia desperately desired a year round warm water port in the Far East When the Japanese walked back their claim, Nicholas began to see the Far East as the means to satisfy his ambitions of larger empire 69 In 1903 Russia formed its naval general staff to develop contingency plans for war much too late for the war about to erupt in 1904 The Russian navy conscripted peasants from all over the country, including inland areas were most had never even seen a ship The training for these unqualified seamen was abysmal 77 Korea ranked high on the list of reasons why Japan went to war with Russia 81 Korea was a potential location for the warm water port the Russians coveted Japan considered Korea a dagger pointed at their heart should it fall into hostile hands 82 Russian investment and the offer of protection to the Korean King the Japanese had murdered the queen in their effort to secure their rule stripped Japan of their Korean protectorate 96 In China, the Boxer Rebellion erupted in 1899 Russia, Germany, France, Japan, Britain, and the United States collaborated to end the Rebellion While there was no shortage of international squabbling, America s stand on the Open Door Policy prevented any land grab in China 125 When Russia eventually leased Port Arthur and the Liaotung Peninsula, Japan and Great Britain became allies in the Far East over shared concern of Russian expansionist tendencies 127 130 Japan, once again stripped of their gains in the Sino Japanese War moved ever closer to war.On the eve of the war, the people with direct access to the Tsar were largely ignorant of the situation in the Far East or Japan s intentions or capabilities 158 The Russians, lacking reliable intelligence, underestimated the numbers of men Japan could put in the field Additionally, they believed a Russian soldier was equal to three Japanese soldiers 159 In reality, the Russian soldiers were hungry peasants fighting far from home with little support while the Japanese, who believed there was a very real threat to their homeland, mobilized their entire society and were willing to die for their Emperor in the struggle ahead 176 To complicate matters for the Russians, they had a horrendous logistical challenges moving supplies along the Trans Siberian railway that was susceptible to backups, breakdown, and guerilla attacks 168 The Japanese had their own logistical challenges but developed better plans to address them In order to speed the landing of Japanese troops closer to the action, they planned to seize the Port of Chemulpo Inchon in the first days of the war, thereby avoiding the long march up the Korean Peninsula from Pusan 169 The Outbreak of War and the first Pearl Harbor Unable to reconcile competing interests in Manchuria and Korea, Japan had decided to go to war Russian soldiers and sailors viewed service in the Far East as exile Drunkenness was rampant 10 The Russians in Port Arthur scarcely considered the Japanese to be people and did not expect them to start the war 11 Tsar Nicholas likewise did not believe the upstart Japanese would initiate a war Despite rising tensions with Japan, the sailors in Port Arthur failed to take seriously orders to deploy mines or set up torpedo nets 14 Unable to blockade both Vladivostok and Port Arthur, Togo desired to deliver a severe blow to the Russians before they had time to prepare 18 Just before Midnight on February 8th 1904, ten small Japanese destroyers snuck into Port Arthur and hit 3 Russian ships using torpedoes While not the decisive blow he desired, it did put the Russians on the defensive for the rest of the war and foreshadowed the attack on Pearl Harbor 37 years later 20 That same evening, the Japanese surrounded Chemulpo Inchon where two Russian ships were at harbor After a failed attempt to break out of Chemulpo Harbor, the Russians scuttled their two ships 193 194 The Russians at Port Arthur were unaware of the attack on Chemulpo as the Koreans had cut the undersea cable between the two locations on February 7th 197 The declaration of war followed this surprise attack While the surprise attack on Port Arthur was inconclusive, it greatly dispirited the Russians Securing access to Chemulpo Harbor provided huge strategic and logistical benefits including the freedom to use the Western approaches to Korea instead of relying on Pusan as a beachhead 249 Panic in Port Arthur led many of the Chinese laborers who hauled the coal to boats and houses to flee eliminating any semblance of efficiency 211 Under lackluster leadership, the Russian navy in Port Arthur grew complacent and failed to go out and engage the Japanese Navy The Tsar dispatched Vice Admiral Makarov, one of Russia s most respected naval officers, to Port Arthur to turn the situation around His presence quickly restored the confidence and morale of the Russian Navy Drawn out of Port Arthur by small Japanese force, Makrov eventually realized he was being lured out from the protection of the fort to be ambushed by a larger Japanese naval force Speeding back to the harbor before the trap could be sprung, his battleship Petropavlovsk hit a mine, killing Makarov and the other 635 sailors on board The battleship was replaceable, Makarov was not In his absence, a risk nothing policy would prevail Makarov s death would leave the Russian Navy headless and drifting for the remainder of the war A month into the war, the Japanese determined that blockading Port Arthur alone would be insufficient While the Japanese pressed on towards the Yalu River, the Japanese Second Army would be landed in the vicinity of Dalny further up the Liaoyang Peninsula to cut off Port Arthur s land communications 251 The Russian command was divided on how to proceed Kuropatkin desired to delay large battles until he had numerical superiority His subordinate in the field Alexiev, wasoptimistic and wanted to hit the Japanese at their beachheads or stop them at the Yalu 252 Kuropatkin, with limited mobility and mediocre defiant subordinates like Alexiev, was in a tight spot In hindsight his strategy should have been employed The mountain passes near the Yalu were ideal for ambushes and holding actions which would give him time to muster a superior force before conducting any decisive engagements 253 The first real land battle of the war occurred in April on the Yalu River 258 In every respect the Japanese out generaled and out performed their Russian counterparts Japanese soldiers disguised themselves as Korean fisherman and collected valuable intelligence on the disposition of Russian forces The Japanese capacity for camouflage and deception extended beyond gathering intelligence The building of a decoy bridge in full view of the Russians became a great distraction, enabling them to build 9 smaller bridges that could be carried into position across narrower streams 259 While the Russians were blazing away at the decoy bridge, the Japanese secretly moved their secret weapon into position 4.7 inch howitzers acquired in absolute secrecy Not in their worst nightmares did the Russians expect to encounter them on the Yalu 260 The Russians, who had taken no precautions to conceal their guns were inviting destruction At 10 A.M., 72 guns and 20 howitzers opened fire on the Russian positions The Russians did not know what hit them 262 Meanwhile, 8 miles upstream the Japanese were moving into position to flank the Russian left General Zasulitch, disdainful of the Japanese, refused to retreat or draw on his reserves While not a very great battle, it was decisive in the eyes of world opinion In victory, Japan established itself as a significant military power More importantly, it established Japan s credit rating, opening the door to financial backing and war loans from the British 268 Two months into the war, food prices in Port Arthur had soared However, in stereotypical Russian fashion, there were virtually unlimited amounts of Vodka available while the railroad remained open There were literally mountains of vodka cases piling up while food was running low 270 As can be imagined, military discipline remained low in such an environment Unwilling to take risks, the Russian Navy procrastinated while the Japanese Second Army moved ashore and established a beachhead on the Liaoyang Peninsula 279 Ironically, one of Russia s small victories came about by accident Against orders, one Russian mine layer moved out beyond their normal 10 miles limit and deployed some mines Shortly afterwards, two Japanese battleships a third of Admiral Togo s capital ships would strike the mines The Battleship Hatsuse would sink to the bottom That same day, in heavy fog, two cruisers and two gunboats collided killing hundreds of Japanese sailors 281 282 Lack of initiative and indecision in in the Battle of Te Li Ssu would demoralize the Russian forces sent to relieve the pressure on Port Arthur By May the war began to have a serious impact on Russia s economy as trade took a backseat to war supplies on the Trans Siberian Railroad 316 317 All the dangers Kuropatkin envisaged if he failed to concentrate his forces had come to pass By responding to Alexiev s pressures, he had scattered his forces over a wide area and been defeated in a succession of actions 319 The Russian Navy was not fairing any better With Port Arthur subjected to daily bombardment and the fleet pinned down and unable to effectively respond, the Tsar ordered Admiral Vitgeft to move the fleet to Vladivostok 325 The fleet made a run for it but was turned back with several ships damaged by the Japanese Navy The Japanese, began their ground assault on Port Arthur on August 19th Despite non existent morale, rampant drunkenness, and being cut off from resupply or reinforcements, the Russians would put up a hell of a fight In the following four and a half months, both sides would losethan 100,000 men killed before the Japanese finally controlled Port Arthur 346 Back in St Petersburg, the notoriously Anti Semitic Minister of the Interior, Plehve was assassinated by a bomb thrown under his carriage This was only the most obvious sign of growing tensions and protests breaking out across the Russian Empire 353 Back in the field, Kuropatkin let his most promising chance for victory slip through his fingers as his subordinates once again waivered in carrying out his orders Lacking trust in his subordinates and fearing his lines of communication to Mukden in danger of being cut, Kuropatkin retreated 372 373 With their forces divided between the siege of Port Arthur and the battle at Liaoyang, the Japanese failed to achieve decisive victory at either 384 With Russian winter approaching, troops began to die from the cold Supply problems persisted What the Russians lacked in morale, training, equipment, food, and medicine they made up for in alcohol, sex, and religious fervor 390 A familiar pattern continued to repeat itself Following the loss of 41,351 casualties 10,959 killed in the battle of Sha Ho, the Tsar moved to resolve the command situation in the Far East The Tsar relieved Alexiev and entrusted Kuropatkin with full control of the Army 400 401 On November 14th, the Japanese raised a second loan of 12 million pounds in London and New York 401 In a foolhardy effort to relieve Port Arthur, the Tsar determined to send his Baltic fleet around the Africa and into the Pacific Many of the ships in this Armada were in disrepair In route, the fleet in a fit of paranoia attacked British fishing trawlers that they had mistaken for Japanese torpedo boats bringing the UK and Russia to the brink of war 414 The Baltic fleet was in for a rough journey Denied entry into many neutral ports to load coal, the ships were often overloaded with coal in every nook and cranny in order to make it to the next coaling station Many of the ships broke down at the most inopportune times The crew, mostly unmotivated conscripts, were often mutinous and belligerent Discipline during exercises and target practice was virtually non existent The Baltic Fleet s moral plummeted further when news of Port Arthur s surrender reached them 481.The Japanese had captured Hill 206 outside Port Arthur at great loss of life From its peak, they could see the entire harbor The guns placed atop its peak bombarded the town and the fleet mercilessly The ships that tried to escape were either sunk or captured 436 Realizing the utter futility of further resistance, General Stoessel surrendered the Port in December 1904 The logistical situation in the Far East continued to deteriorate The Tsar needed 900 locomotives to maintain the Russian Army in the field.he had fewer than 300 450 Meanwhile tensions were rising closer to home Japan s European intelligence coordinator Colonel Akashi was knee deep in revolutionary intrigue Revolutionaries in Russia including Lenin , Poland, Lithuania, and Finland all met with Akashi in their struggles against the Tsar 451 Things reached a boiling point when Russian guards opened fire on unarmed demonstrators led by a Russian priest Anywhere between 200 300 people were killed on Bloody Sunday in what many considered the opening salvo in the Russian revolution 455 On February 8th the procurator general of Finland was assassinated 8 days later the brother in law of the Tsar was blown up in a bombing 459 With growing unrest at home Kuropatkin continued the thankless task of waging war in the Far East With the fall of Port Arthur, he was no longer being dragged into battles he wished to avoid and had greater freedom to maneuver and choose the time and place for action 459 Unfortunately, morale remained low and his army overly cautious Consequently, at the battle of Mukden, Kuropatkin allowed his force to be attacked on two sides without any coherent counterattack 474 The Japanese hoped to surround the Russian Army and bring about a second Sedan Despite winning the battle, the Japanese failed to exploit their advantage allowing the Russians to escape 479 Meanwhile the Baltic fleet continued their hellish journey across the Pacific Their fleet had begun to rot during their prolonged stop in the aptly named Hellville, on the northern tip of Madagascar The crews working to scrape the barnacles off the ships had the added challenge of fighting off numerous sharks attracted by the rotten meat being dumped overboard daily On the arduous journey across the Indian Ocean many sailors committed suicide As they approached the Straits of Tsushima, the Japanese Navy executed their plan of attack The battleships and cruisers battled for five hours After they retired, the torpedo boats moved in for their three hour attack 513 Russian return fire was largely ineffective Togo continued to attack even after the white flag had been raised on the Russian flagship 516 Of the 12 Russian ships that made up the Battle Line, 8 were sunk and 4 captured 4 Cruisers were also sunk, 1 scuttled, and 3 interned at Manila More than 4,800 Russian were killed Japanese ships suffered some damage but only three torpedo boats were lost and 110 killed 519 To strengthen their hand for the negotiated peace, the Japanese invaded and captured Sakhalin Island 527 Treaty of Portsmouth With rebellion brewing at home for Russia and Japan exhausted and laden with debt, both sides agreed to peace talks Despite the setbacks, Russia s army continued to grow while Japan had maxed out their pool of available manpower 529 The Japanese hoped to end the conflict without being further bogged down in Siberia or Manchuria 524 President Roosevelt, partial to Japan throughout the war but beginning to fear Japanese expansion should Russia collapse agreed to mediate the talks 525 While Russia was willing to evacuate Manchuria and cede Korea, the Tsar absolutely refused to pay any financial indemnity or cede all of Sakhalin which controlled entry to Vladivostok The blatant refusal to pay an indemnity which the indebted Japanese sorely needed almost led to the collapse of peace talks Japan was unlikely to secure another loan and was now seriously outnumbers on the continent As a last second compromise, the Japanese removed their demand for an indemnity and kept the lower half of Sakhalin Island 533 The peace treaty raised howls of protests back in Japan as the people felt they had been cheated of their just spoils The people directed their anger at the government generally and the United States in particular Given their precarious financial situation and being now seriously outnumbered on the mainland, the treaty results were probably the best they could realistically expect The Russian negotiator Witte returned home to a hero s welcome, winning a victory for the nation despite its army and navy s inability to win 538 The Japanese victory over a European power rippled across Asia fueling Nationalist movements in India, Indochina, and the Philippines 541